It’s an immense pleasureand honour for us to launch the International Conference onNephrology and Urology 2018 on 20-21 August in Madrid, Spain.It is a great opportunity to people all over the globe to gain their knowledgein kidneyrelated diseases as this conference serves as a medium for the participants andrenowned delegates. In this conference the participants will come to knowvarious strategies for disease prevention, control and remediesfor curing them through world-famous nephrologists and scientists. Thisconference intends to give the participants with knowledge for diagnosing themost common renaldiseases affecting the people these days.
The conference invitesparticipants from universities, clinical research institutions and diagnosticcompanies to share their researchexperiences on all aspects of this rapidly expanding field and thereby,providing a showcase of the latest techniques.Our main concern is to share the knowledge of the eminent personalities amongthe participants. It will serve as a platform to discuss current research and advancements in diagnosis and management of Kidney disorders.
Allied Academies cordially invites participants throughout the world to attend the International Conference on Nephrology and Urology on 20-21 August 2018 at Madrid, Spain which includes oral talks by eminent speakers, experiences of doctors and scientists, exhibits, poster presentations and sponsors. The aim of organizing the Nephrology and Urology Conference is giving exposure to technologies, government / institutional help, increase international tie-ups and to provide knowledge about research work going on Nephrology and Urology.
Over years we Allied Academies have been conducting conferences on various issues related to science that we meet in our life. It is a global leader in organizing international conferences, meetings, workshops etc; at higher levels of quality. Being established in 1997 this publishing house has been built on the base of esteemed academic and research institutions including The College of Audiologists and Speech Language Pathologists of Ontario (CASLPO), The Association for Public Safety Communications Officials of Canada (APCO), The Canadian Vascular Access Association (CVAA), and The Canadian Society of Internal Medicine (CSIM).
Nephron is the functional entity of the kidney. Each kidney consists about several millions of these nephrons. The specific function of the nephron is to remove from the blood plasma certain end products of metabolism, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine, and any excess sodium, chloride, and potassium ions. By allowing for reabsorption of water and some electrolytes back into the blood, the nephron also plays a vital role to keep up the normal fluid balance in the body.
- The branch of science that deals with the diseases of the male and female urinary tracts including kidney, uterus, bladder, urethra is termed as urology
- The branch of science that deals with the physiology of the kidney, kidney disease, kidney diseases treatment and renal replacement therapy
- Clinical nephrology
- IgA nephropathy
Dialysis is a treatment that takes over your kidney functions if those organs stop doing their job. If you have chronic kidney disease, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant at some point. There are two types of dialysis.
- Haemodialysis: Your blood is kept through a filter outside your body, cleaned, and then returned to you. This will be either at a dialysis facility or at home.
- Peritoneal dialysis: Your blood would be cleaned inside your body. A special fluid injected into your abdomen to absorb waste from the blood that passes through small vessels in your abdominal cavity. The fluid is then drained away. This type of dialysis is typically done at home.
- Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
- Automated Peritoneal dialysis
Renal nutrition is necessary to improve the efficiency of the dialysis in the patients. Dialysis clinics have dieticians to help the patient plan their meals. Low sodium and increased content of proteins along with limited amount of phosphorous is usually suggested. The chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital processes and activities and new material assimilates is known as Metabolism. So the person should take care of his/her diet to keep up a healthy metabolism.
- Nutrition therapy
- Chronic kidney disease diet
- Diet with kidney failure
- Pre-dialysis renal diet
Clinical nephrology is the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, treatment for kidney problems and renal replacement therapy including dialysis and kidney transplantation. Whereas , paediatric nephrology specializes in the diagnosis and management of children with a variety of acute and chronic kidney-related kidney diseases.
- Renal Biopsy
- Increases Creatinine levels
- Blood urea nitrogen
A kidney transplant is a surgery undertaken to replace ones kidney with another kidney from a healthy person who is often called a donor. The donor could be either a person alive or a deceased person. The deceased person will be the one who recently passed away. Tests are to be taken to find out if the kidney of the donor matches the recipient’s blood type or tissue type to avoid rejection.Kidney transplant usually lasts for 3 hours. The donor’s kidney is placed in the lower abdomen of the recipient. Blood vessels from the donor’s kidney are connected to arteries and veins of the recipient body, and the ureter from the donor kidney is connected to your bladder. Blood will be then able to flow through the donor kidney, and the kidney will begin to filter and remove wastes besides producing urine.There are several kinds of kidney diseases which can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a condition in which the kidneys fail to work normally. People with kidney failure need to receive dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Acute kidney failure is the sudden and often temporary loss of kidney function.
- Chronic kidney failure occurs when one suffers from gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function over time. This happens gradually, usually over months to years.
- Pediatric Renal Transplantation
- Dual Kidney Transplantation
- Acute Renal Allo graft Rejection
Kidney diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease due to problems with the shape or size of the kidneys (anatomic disorders), while other kidney diseases interfere with the inner workings of the kidneys (metabolic disorders). Most metabolic kidney disorders are rare, since they are to be inherited from both parents. Some kidney diseases caused by inflammation of the kidneys, called nephritis. This might be due to an infection or to an autoimmune reaction where the body's immune or defence system attacks and damages the kidneys. The most common causes of kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, and hardening of the arteries (which damage the blood vessels in the kidney). Other common causes of kidney failure include certain medications that could be toxic to kidney tissue, and blockages of the system that drains the kidneys.
- Alport Syndrome
- Renal Agenesis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a sudden episode of kidney failure or kidney damage that happens within a few hours or a few days. AKI causes a build-up of waste products in your blood and makes it hard for your kidneys to keep the right balance of fluid in your body. AKI can also affect other organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Acute kidney injury is common in patients who are in the hospital, in intensive care units, and especially in older adults.The following symptoms may occur with acute kidney failure. Some people have no symptoms, at least in the early stages. The symptoms can be very subtle.
- Decreased urine production
- Body swelling
- Problems concentrating
- Nausea, vomiting
- Abdominal pain
- Metallic taste in the mouth
- Seizures and coma may occur in very severe acute kidney failure
Session 8 : Chronic kidney disease symptoms
Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which kidney gets damaged and its ability to perform its work decreases. In worse conditions, wastes can build to high levels in your blood leading to sickness. Complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage can be observed. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. This disease might be due to diabetes, high blood pressure or other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. If not it progresses eventually with time leading to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.
- Slight kidney damage with normal or increased filtration
- Mild decrease in kidney function
- Moderate decrease in kidney function
- Severe decrease in kidney function
- Kidney failure
Session 9 : Diagnosis
Unless the kidneys are swollen or there's a tumour, your doctor can't usually check for disease by feeling the kidneys. Instead, your doctor might test the urine and blood, take a scan of the kidneys, and test samples of kidney tissue. A routine urine test, called a urinalysis, checks for protein, sugar, blood, and ketones (created when the body breaks down fat). The urine tested with a dipstick, which is a thin piece of plastic covered with chemicals that react when they touch substances in the urine. Your doctor will also check for red and white blood cells in the urine during a urinalysis (the urine is examined under a microscope). Depending on the suspected cause of the kidney problem, other tests may also be done.
- Renal biopsy
- Intravenous Pyelogram
- Creatinine clearance test
Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease. About 1 out of 4 adults with diabetes has kidney disease. Diabetic kidney disease is also called DKD, chronic kidney disease, CKD, kidney disease of diabetes, or diabetic nephropathy. High blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can damage the blood vessels in your kidneys. The damaged blood vessels don’t work as well. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which can also damage your kidneys.
- Diabetes mellitus
- Diabetes insipidus
Anaemia is a condition in which the body has fewer red blood cells than normal. Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues and organs throughout the body and enable them to use energy from food. With anaemia, red blood cells carry less oxygen to tissues and organs—particularly the heart and brain—and those tissues and organs may not function as well as they should. Anaemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD)—the permanent, partial loss of kidney function. Anaemia might begin to develop in the early stages of CKD, when someone has 20 to 50% of normal kidney function. Anaemia tends to worsen as CKD progresses. Most people who have total loss of kidney function, or kidney failure, have anaemia. A person has kidney failure when he or she needs a kidney transplant or dialysis to live. Some of the symptoms include the following.
- fatigue, or feeling tired
- problems with concentration
- difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
- chest pain
The heart pumps blood filled with oxygen through all parts of your body, including the kidneys. The kidneys clean the blood, removing waste products and extra water. Without the kidneys, your blood would have too much waste and water. Without the heart, your kidneys would not have the oxygen filled blood needed to do its many important jobs. Without the help of your kidneys, the heart would be working too hard or would not function at all. A healthy functioning cardiovascular system is important for your kidneys to their job. When your heart or kidneys cannot function normally, it can lead to Cardiovascular disease (heart disease) or kidney disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints. It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints. RA has many health consequences, and evidence suggests that a higher risk of kidney disease is one of them. One type of kidney problem found in people with longstanding RA is amyloidosis. In this condition, a special type of protein gets deposited that causes kidney failure.
- Tylenol (generic acetaminphen )
Urine has many dissolved minerals and salts. When your urine has high levels of these minerals and salts, you can form stones. Kidney stones can start small but can grow larger in size, even filling the inner hollow structures of the kidney. Some stones stay in the kidney, and do not cause any problems. Sometimes, the kidney stone can travel down the ureter, the tube between the kidney and the bladder. If the stone reaches the bladder, they pass out of the body in urine. If the stone becomes lodged in the ureter, it blocks the urine flow from that kidney and causes pain. Kidney stones come in many different types and colours. How you treat them and stop new stones from forming depends on what type of stone you have. They might be calcium stones, uric acid stones and rarely cysteine stones.
- Continuous urination
- Backward flow of urine
- Bacterial infections
PKD is one of the major kidney diseases which are genetic or inherited . It is not so common in babies and children. In this disease fluid filled pouches or cysts are found in the kidney but can also be observed in other organs like liver, spleen and pancreas. The type of PKD passed from parent to child by an autosomal dominant type of inheritance is known as autosomal dominant PKD or ADPKD. It indicates that only one copy of abnormal gene is the cause of the disease. Therefore there is a 50-50 chance for the child to develop the disease if one of the parent suffers from it.
- Renal Replacement Therapy
Glomeruli is a region of kidney that filters blood.
A group of diseases injure the glomeruli which
leads to glomerulonephritis. This disease can often be categorised as acute and chronic nephritis. It might be due to infections
like strep throat. It can be diagnosed by finding protein and blood cells in
the urine. Kidney biopsy is also a method for diagnosis in which a
tiny piece of patient’s kidney would be taken with a special needle and
observed under a microscope.
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Nephritic syndrome
- Minimal change disease
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
- Membranous glomerulonephritis.
- Thin basement membrane disease
- IgA nephropathy
Renal cell carcinoma can also be called as hypernephroma, renal adenocarcinoma. It is most commonly known as renal or kidney cancer. It results when cancer cells grow indefinitely along the lining of the tubules of the kidney. It is most common in men between the age 50-70. The patient might be symptom free in the early stages but encounters symptoms like the following.
- Moderate decrease in kidney function
- Severe decrease in kidney function
- Kidney failure
- Lump in abdomen
- Blood in urine
- Unexpected weight loss
- Loss of appetite
Session 18 : Treatment
Diseases related to kidneys are usually progressive with time and the damage cannot be undone. Therefore early detection of them is very much necessary. It is also important as kidney diseases alter the risk of heart diseases and heart strokes. Patients with diabetes need to check their glucose levels regularly with right devices. Also controlling hypertension is an important for patients with kidney diseases. There are several types of medicine that help people keep their blood pressure in a healthy range. Two kinds of medicines help to protect the kidneys. They are
In case of kidney failure the treatments to be undertaken are dialysis either haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplants. Many researchers are working on the kidney diseases to find out the effective ways of treating the kidney diseases. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) gives great support to these researchers.
- Peritonial dialysis
Nephrectomy is a surgery performed to remove a part or entire kidney. It can be performed in 3 different ways.
- ACEi (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors)
- ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers)
- Radial nephrectomy – entire kidney is removed. layer of fat around the kidney, the tube (ureter) that drains urine from the kidney to your bladder, the adrenal gland, and nearby lymph nodes.
- Partial nephrectomy –only the affected part of the kidney is removed.
- Simple nephrectomy- only the kidney is removed
The surgery can be of two types –open surgery or laparoscopic surgery.
- In open surgery kidney is removed through a big cut and a scar will be left by the incision which fades with time.
- In laparoscopic surgery, a thin lighted tube called laparoscope and other surgical tools are inserted through incisions and the kidney is removed. This process will leave smaller scars than the open surgery.
Session 20 : Renal Support Network
RSN is an American non profit, kidney patient-focused, kidney patient-run organization that works to benefit individuals affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). RSN's mission is to help patients develop their personal coping skills, special talents, and employability by educating and empowering them (and their family members) to take control of the course and management of the disease.A vital role of RSN is to provide lawmakers and policymakers with the patients’ perspective on the needs and capabilities of people with CKD. RSN does this through their Wellness & Education Kidney Advocacy Network (weKAN).
- Kidney Times
- Kidney Talks
The prevalence of chronic kidney diseases and unhealthy life style of the present generation is the most important factor for the market of nephrology. Unhealthy lifestyle is resulted from lack of physical activity and intake of alcohol and tobacco products. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the total number of people suffering with diabetes has increased drastically from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. The above mentioned estimates clearly represent the wide scope of growth for nephrology.
The Global market for kidney failure treatment will grow from $39.4 billion in 2016 to nearly $45.6 billion by 2021, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.0% for the period of 2016-2021.Asia-Pacific leads the market with a 43 per cent share, followed by North America and Europe.The latest report on the nephrology and urology devices market from Global Data has highlighted how an explosion in diabetes and hypertension combined with aging populations is driving investment to meet patient needs.In 2016, renal dialysis equipment accounted for over 55 per cent of the market value, at over $17 billion, and this is expected to grow to over $26 billion by 2026.
The renal dialysis equipment market in japan will rise steadily from $5 billion in 2015 to over $11 billion by 2022, representing a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 3.48%